Arduino Basics: PIR
Showing posts with label PIR. Show all posts
Showing posts with label PIR. Show all posts

2 September 2016

Arduino based Security Project Using Cayenne


 

Description

This is an Arduino based home security project that uses the power of "Cayenne" for extraordinary capabilities.

Cayenne Beta

Cayenne is a new IoT drag and drop platform originally released for the Raspberry Pi, but now available for Arduino. Cayenne makes the task of connecting your Arduino to the internet as simple as possible. All of the complexity of internet connectivity is hidden within the Cayenne library.

You can easily create a Network of Arduinos and build an IoT system which can be managed and operated within the Cayenne dashboard. This dashboard is accessible through your browser or via the Cayenne smart phone app (on IOS or Android).

The feature I liked the most, was the ability to change the position of sensors or actuators on the Arduino without having to re-upload Arduino code. I could manage the changed position from within the Cayenne platform. The other feature that I liked was the ability to setup actions based on custom triggers. You can use Cayenne to trigger a whole range of functions, for example: play a sound, move a motor, light up an LED, or to send alert notifications via email or SMS.

Cayenne is in Beta at the moment, so there are a few minor bugs here and there, but overall - I give it a thumbs up - it is definitely worth checking out.
 

Here is a link to the Cayenne Beta Program:
**Cayenne Beta Link**



              Source: myDevices Media Kit

 

Home Security Project Summary

In order to fully experience this new IoT platform, I decided to create a project to really put it through its paces. This is what my Security Project will need:

  1. It will use two Arduinos, one connected to the internet via an Ethernet shield, and the other via WIFI.
  2. Two detectors - a PIR sensor and a laser trip wire.
  3. If the sensors are tripped, the person has 10 seconds to present an RFID tag to the Grove RFID reader:
    • If a valid RFID tag is SUCCESSFULLY presented within the time limit, a nice personalised greeting will be played to that person using a Grove - Serial MP3 player
    • If a valid RFID FAILS to be presented within the time limit, an Alarm will sound, and I will be notified of the intrusion via an SMS alert.
  4. The Cayenne dashboard will show the status of the sensors, and I will have full control over my security system via the web interface (or smartphone app).
  5. The sensors will be attached to a different Arduino to that of the Grove MP3 player and the RFID tag reader, which means that there will have to be some level of communication between the two Arduinos. In fact, the cross communication will be vital to the success of this project.


 
 
 

Project Video



 
 
 
 

 

Flow Diagrams:

Main Flow Diagram

The following flow diagram shows the Security project process. It is a high level view of the decisions being made by each Arduino in response to various events.  


 

Triggers Flow Diagram

The following flow diagram aims to highlight the various triggers set up within Cayenne to get this Security system to work.  

 
 
 

Arduino IDE and Library Downloads

You will need an Arduino IDE to upload code to the Arduino and the Seeeduino Cloud.
Here is the link to the Arduino IDE: Arduino IDE - download location

The Cayenne service requires that you download and install the Cayenne Library into your Arduino IDE.
You can get the Cayenne Library from here: Cayenne Library File - Download


 

Cayenne Connectivity Setup

The Seeeduino Cloud needs to be prepared for use with Cayenne.
Normal operating/setup instructions can be found here: Seeeduino Cloud WIKI page
 
Once you have successfully connected Seeeduino Cloud to your WIFI network, you can add it to the Cayenne Dashboard by making the following selections from within the Cayenne Web application:

  1. Add New
  2. Device/Widget
  3. Microcontrollers
  4. Arduino
  5. Ensure Seeeduino Cloud is connected to WIFI network - the select the NEXT button
  6. Select - Arduino Yun: Built-in Ethernet - ticked
  7. Providing you have already installed the Cayenne library as described above - you should be able to copy and paste the code to the Arduino IDE and upload to the Seeeduino Cloud.
  8. If successful, you should see the Arduino Yun board appear within the Cayenne Dashboard. If not, then seek help within the Cayenne forum.


 

The Arduino UNO with WIZNET 5100 - Ethernet Shield
also needs to be prepared with Cayenne

  1. Add New
  2. Device/Widget
  3. Microcontrollers
  4. Arduino
  5. Ensure Arduino is powered, and Ethernet shield is connected to your internet router via an Ethernet cable
  6. Select - Arduino Uno: Ethernet Shield W5100 - ticked
  7. Copy and paste the code to the Arduino IDE and upload to the Arduino UNO.
  8. If successful, you should see the Arduino Uno board appear within the Cayenne Dashboard. If not, then seek help within the Cayenne forum.

 


 
If you have the Ethernet shield with the WIZNET 5200 chip, then you may need to download a specific Ethernet library in addition to the Cayenne library.
 
Just follow the instructions within the Automatically generated sketch provided - when you select your specific Arduino/Ethernet/WIFI shield combination. If you need further instructions on connecting your device to Cayenne - then please visit the myDevices website for the online documentation.


 


 
 
 
 

ARDUINO CODE (1)


Code for Arduino UNO with Ethernet Shield:

The following code will need to be uploaded to the Arduino UNO:


 
 
 
 
 

ARDUINO CODE (2)


Code for Seeeduino Cloud:

The following code will need to be uploaded to the Seeeduino Cloud:


 
 
 
 

Fritzing diagram (1)


Fritzing diagram for Arduino UNO with Ethernet

Please click on the picture below for an enlarged version of this fritzing diagram


 
 
 
 

Fritzing diagram (2)


Fritzing diagram for Seeeduino Cloud

Please click on the picture below for an enlarged version of this fritzing diagram


 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Cayenne Dashboard Setup - GUI


The Arduino code only provides half of the functionality of this project. The Cayenne Dashboard needs to be setup to provide the rest of the functionality. The following instructions will show you how to add each of the widgets required for this Home Security project.


Arduino Ethernet - Master Switch

The master switch allows me to turn the security system on and off. When I turn the MASTER SWITCH ON, the laser beam will turn on, and the sensors will start monitoring the area for intruders. This widget is NOT associated with a physical switch/sensor on the Arduino - it uses virtual channel 0. We need to add the Master switch to the dashboard:


  1. Add New
  2. Device/Widget
  3. Actuators
  4. Generic
  5. Digital Output - Control a Digital Output
  6. Widget Name: Master On Off Switch
  7. Select Device: Arduino Ethernet
  8. Connectivity: Virtual
  9. Pin: V0
  10. Choose Widget: Button
  11. Choose Icon: Valve
  12. Step2: Add Actuator
We will add a trigger later to get this button to automatically turn the Laser beam on.


 
 
 

Arduino Ethernet - PIR Sensor

This sensor will be used to detect movement in the room. If a person walks into the room, this sensor will detect movement, and will trigger a message to be played on the Grove Serial MP3 player. The message will aim to get the person to identify themselves. They identify themselves by placing their RFID tag in close proximity to the Grove RFID reader. If the tag is valid, a "Welcome home" message is played on the Grove MP3 player. If a valid tag is not presented to the reader within 10 seconds, an Alarm will go off ("Alarm sound" played on Grove MP3 player.)

The PIR sensor is connected to digital Pin 6 of the Arduino, however, it is mapped to virtual pin 1 for better synchronisation with the Cayenne dashboard. This was done to capture ALL detections - as the PIR sensor could change from a LOW to HIGH and back to LOW state in between a Cayenne state check - and therefore, Cayenne could miss this motion detection.. Therefore we need to assign the PIR sensor to a virtual channel in the following way:
  1. Add New
  2. Device/Widget
  3. Sensors
  4. Motion
  5. Digital Motion Sensor - Motion Detector
  6. Widget Name: PIR sensor
  7. Select Device: Arduino Ethernet
  8. Connectivity: Virtual
  9. Pin: V1
  10. Choose Widget: 2-State Display
  11. Choose Icon: Light
  12. Step2: Add Sensor
  13. Select Settings from the PhotoResistor
  14. Choose Display: Value
  15. Save


 
 
 

Arduino Ethernet - Photoresistor

This sensor will be used with the laser beam to create a laser tripwire. If the sensor detects a change in light levels (drops below the threshold), it will activate the laser trigger button on the dashboard. The person will then be required to identify themselves etc etc (similar to the motion detection by the PIR sensor). The photoresistor widget will display the raw analog reading from the sensor (connected to A2), but is associated with virtual channel 2. I used a virtual channel for more control over this sensor. To add the Photoresistor to the dashboard:

  1. Add New
  2. Device/Widget
  3. Sensors
  4. Luminosity
  5. Photoresistor - Luminosity sensor
  6. Widget Name: PhotoResistor
  7. Select Device: Arduino Ethernet
  8. Connectivity: Virtual
  9. Pin: V2
  10. Choose Widget: Value
  11. Choose Icon: Light
  12. Step2: Add Sensor


 
 
 

Arduino Ethernet - Laser Trigger

The laser trigger is just an indicator that someone tripped the laser beam. The state of this widget is used to notify the Seeeduino that a presence has been detected. This widget is associated with virtual pin 4 on the Arduino UNO with Ethernet.

  1. Add New
  2. Device/Widget
  3. Actuators
  4. Generic
  5. Digital Output - Control a Digital Output
  6. Widget Name: Laser Trigger
  7. Select Device: Arduino Ethernet
  8. Connectivity: Virtual
  9. Pin: V4
  10. Choose Widget: Button
  11. Choose Icon: Lock
  12. Step2: Add Actuator


 
 
 

Arduino Ethernet - Laser Threshold

The laser threshold is used to manually configure the light level at which the laser trigger will trip. When the photoresistor value drops below the threshold value, the laser trigger icon will activate. This allows the threshold value to be updated from the Cayenne dashboard, rather than having to manually adjust the value in the Arduino code. Also, this threshold can be set remotely, in that you don't have to be near the Arduino to change this value. A very useful feature of this Security system. This widget is associated with virtual pin 5 on the Arduino UNO with Ethernet.

  1. Add New
  2. Device/Widget
  3. Actuators
  4. Generic
  5. PWM Output - Control a PWM Output
  6. Widget Name: Laser Threshold
  7. Select Device: Arduino Ethernet
  8. Connectivity: Virtual
  9. Pin: V5
  10. Choose Widget: Slider
  11. Slider Min Value: 0
  12. Slider Max Value: 10
  13. Step2: Add Actuator
The max value of the slider is 10 - due to a current bug in the Cayenne software. Once resolved, this value (as well as the relevant Arduino code) will need to be updated.


 
 
 

Seeeduino Cloud - Presence Detected

The presence detected widget is there to notify the Seeeduino Cloud that a presence has been detected on the Arduino Uno with Ethernet shield. When the PIR sensor detects movement or if the laser tripwire is tripped, Cayenne will change the state of the Presence Detected widget from LOW to HIGH. This is used within the Seeeduino Cloud to trigger the message "Place your keys on the Mat"
. If a valid RFID tag is read by the Grove RFID reader, then this widget's state will change back from HIGH to LOW, and the MasterSwitch will be deactivated - turning the Security system off. This widget is associated with Virtual pin 6 on the Seeeduino Cloud.

  1. Add New
  2. Device/Widget
  3. Actuators
  4. Generic
  5. Digital Output - Control a Digital Output
  6. Widget Name: Presence Detected
  7. Select Device: Seeeduino Cloud
  8. Connectivity: Virtual
  9. Pin: V6
  10. Choose Widget: Button
  11. Choose Icon: Lock
  12. Step2: Add Actuator


 
 
 

Seeeduino Cloud - Intruder Alert

If a valid RFID tag is not read by the Grove RFID reader within 10 seconds of a presence detection event, an alarm will sound, and this widget will be activated. This will trigger a notification event - to notify me of the unauthorised intrusion - via SMS or email. I will also have a visual indicator on the Cayenne dashboard that an intrusion has taken place. This widget is associated with Virtual pin 7 on the Seeeduino Cloud.

  1. Add New
  2. Device/Widget
  3. Actuators
  4. Generic
  5. Digital Output - Control a Digital Output
  6. Widget Name: Laser Trigger
  7. Select Device: Seeeduino Cloud
  8. Connectivity: Virtual
  9. Pin: V7
  10. Choose Widget: Button
  11. Choose Icon: Thermometer
  12. Step2: Add Actuator


 
 
 

Seeeduino Cloud - Laser Beam

The laser beam widget was created to allow for full control over the laser beam. The laser beam can be turned on or off from the Cayenne dashboard, and a connected to digital pin 7 on the Seeeduino Cloud.


  1. Add New
  2. Device/Widget
  3. Actuators
  4. Light
  5. Light Switch - Turn On/Off a Light
  6. Widget Name: xLaser Beam
  7. Select Device: Seeeduino Cloud
  8. Connectivity: Digital
  9. Pin: D7
  10. Choose Widget: Button
  11. Choose Icon: Light
  12. Step2: Add Actuator


 
 
 
 

Cayenne Triggers

Now that all of the widgets have been added to the Dashboard, there is just one more step to complete the Security System. We need to setup the triggers. These triggers provide a level of automation that is easy to create within Cayenne, but would be very complicated otherwise. I set my triggers up as per the table below. Each row represents one of the triggers within my Cayenne dashboard. If you would like to see an example of how to add a trigger - please have a look at the video at the top of this tutorial.  


 
 
 
 
 
 

Concluding comments

I used many different elements to put this home/office security project together - Multiple Arduinos were connected to the internet, both controlled by a web/smart phone app, cross-communication/synchronisation between the Arduinos, and the use of multiple sensors and modules including a laser beam !
 
This was way more than just a simple PIR sense and alarm project. I now have a personalised greeting and reminder system when I walk in the door. Everyone else has their own personalised greeting. I can enable my Security System remotely, from two blocks away, and if I wanted to - I could enable it from the other side of the world. I know instantly when someone has entered my house/office.... with an SMS alert straight to my phone.
 
This project could easily be extended:

  1. Press a button on my phone to manually trigger/play a specific message/sound/song
  2. Take a picture of the intruder
  3. Introduce fire or leak detection aswell
  4. Add other environmental sensors - Temperature / Humidity
  5. Connect it to lamp/light - creating a security light
I am sure you can think of more things I could do with this system. In fact, why don't you mention your ideas in the comments below.
 
Cayenne was instrumental in getting this project to work. I don't think I would know where to start if I had to do this project without this cool IoT platform. I think I will definitely be trying out a few more projects using Cayenne, and should you want to do the same, then please make sure to join Cayenne Beta:
 
Here is the link you need to get to the right place: Cayenne Beta Link

 

If you like this page, please do me a favour and show your appreciation :

 
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I can also be found on Pinterest and Instagram.
Have a look at my videos on my YouTube channel.

20 December 2013

PIR Sensor (Part 2)

PIR Border Title
In this tutorial we will connect our HC-SR501 PIR (movement) Sensor to an Arduino UNO. The PIR sensor will be powered by the Arduino and when movement is detected, the PIR sensor will send a signal to Digital Pin 2. The Arduino will respond to this signal by illuminating the LED attached to Pin 13.

PIR Sensor (Part 1) : Showed that this sensor can be used in isolation (without an Arduino). However, I will still demonstrate how you can attach this sensor to the Arduino so that we can move forward to more advanced objectives and concepts.


Video









Parts Required






Fritzing Sketch



PIR Tutorial 2_bb




Arduino Sketch




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/*Simple PIR sketch: Written by ScottC, 19th Dec 2013

 http://arduinobasics.blogspot.com/
 
 ----------------------------------------------------*/

void setup(){
 pinMode(13,OUTPUT);
 pinMode(2,INPUT);
}

void loop(){
 digitalWrite(13,digitalRead(2));
}




The sketch above reads the signal coming in from the PIR sensor on Pin 2, and if it reads HIGH, it light up the LED attached to Pin 13. If it reads LOW, it will turn the LED off. This is all controlled by line 13 in the Arduino Sketch above.

The following table helps to identify the purpose of the potentiometers on the PIR sensor. Most people say they use trial and error. I will attempt to reduce the mystery of these components on the PIR board.


104 (Left) – Max


104Left
LED on = 20 sec
LED off = 3 sec

When you move the 104 labelled potentiometer all the way to the left (max position), the LED will remain on for 20 seconds after movement is detected. The 20 seconds is independent of the other potentiometer (105) setting. When the LED turns off, it will remain off for 3 seconds before the sensor will trigger again from any further movement.




104 (Right) – Min



104Right

LED on = 1 sec
LED off = 3 sec

When you move the 104 labelled potentiometer all the way to the right (min position), the LED will remain on for 1 second after movement is detected. When the LED turns off, it will remain off for 3 seconds before the sensor will trigger again from any further movement.




105 (Left) – Max



105Left

Most sensitive – Detects movement from over 10 steps away.

The 105 labelled potentiometer controls the sensitivity of the PIR sensor. When in the left position, the PIR sensor is most sensitive and small amounts of movement will trigger the sensor. It detected my movement (ie a single step to the left of right) from over 10 steps away from the sensor. I was very impressed.




105 (Right) – Min



105Right

Least sensitive: Need significant movement for sensor to trigger. Detects movement from about 4 steps away.

When the 105 labelled potentiometer is twisted to the right, the PIR sensor becomes a lot less sensitive. I needed to take much bigger steps to the left or right to trigger the sensor (about 3 times the size compared to the left position). It also had a lot more trouble detecting movement occurring further away. It only really started to detect my movement when I was about 4 steps away from it. 

My preferred combination was 104-Right (min) + 105-Left (max), which meant that the sensor would remain on for only a short period of time, and detect any subtle movements in the room. This combination is displayed below:


IMG_0697

I have not tested to see how it performs over a very long period with this setting, and whether it would suffer from false positive readings, but that could easily be fixed by turning the 105 labelled potentiometer a bit more to the right.

16 December 2013

PIR Sensor (Part 1)

PIR Title

PIR sensors are pyroelectric or “passive” infrared sensors which can be used to detect changes in infrared radiation levels. The sensor is split in half, and any significant difference in IR levels between the two sections of the sensor will cause the signal pin to swing HIGH or LOW. Hence it can be used as a motion detector when IR levels move across and trigger the sensor (eg. human movement across a room).
The potentiometers are used to adjust the amount of time the sensor remains “on” and “off” after being triggered.  Essentially the delay between triggered events.
Here are a couple of pictures of the PIR sensor.

IMG_0659  IMG_0654  IMG_0648 IMG_0658

The sensor used in this tutorial is HC-SR501 PIR sensor.
You can get more information about this sensor here.




Parts Required







Sketch

 

PIR1_Fritzing Sketch




IMG_0669






Video

 






 

Sketch Explanation

 

The sketch described above can be used to test the functionality of the PIR sensor. I had another one of these sensors in my kit, and could not get it to work, no matter what I tried. The sensor would blink continuously even when there was no movement in the room. However, I must warn you, this specific sensor has an initialisation sequence which will cause the LED to blink once or twice in a 30-60sec timeframe. It will then remain off until the sensor detects movement. The amount of time that the LED remains on (when movement is detected) is controlled by one of the potentiometers.

Therefore, you could have it so that the LED blinks quickly or slowly after movement is detected.
If you set it to remain off for a long time, the sensor may appear to be unresponsive to subsequent movement events. Getting the timing right is mostly done out of trial an error, but at least the board indicates which side is “min” and which side is “max”.
Have a look at the PIR picture above for the potentiometer positions/timings that I used in the video.




In a future tutorial, I will connect this sensor to the Arduino. But don’t worry. The sketch is just as easy. And then the real fun begins.

See PART 2 - Connecting a PIR to an Arduino




Thankyou

 

I would like to thank the following people who took time out to help me when I was having issues with this sensor:
  • Steven Wallace
  • Bobby Slater
  • Pop Gheorghe
  • Mike Barela
  • Winkle ink
  • Jonathan Mayer
  • Don Rideaux-Crenshaw
  • Ralf Kramer
  • Richard Freeman
It just shows how great the maker community is. Thanks again… I almost gave up on this one !